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why was the great mosque of kairouan built

By December 26, 2020Uncategorized

As this is the place where we worship Almighty Allah (SWT), it is understandable that we attach so much importance to a mosque. Seventh-century North Africa was not the easiest place to establish a new city. The Great Mosque isn't close to anything in particular, but it's rich history and unique architecture are worth the long drive. The maqsura is assembled from cutwork wooden screens topped with bands of carved abstracted vegetal motifs set into geometric frames, kufic-style script inscriptions, and merlons, which look like the crenellations a top a fortress wall. Around 690, shortly after its construction, the mosque was destroyed during the occupation of Kairouan by the Berbers, originally conducted by Kusaila. Proceeds are donated to charity. Around the mihrab are lustre tiles from Iraq. Date of Monument: Hegira 221 / AD 836. The sanctuary roof and courtyard porticos are supported by repurposed Roman and Byzantine columns and capitals. Some content is licensed under a Creative Commons license, and other content is completely copyright-protected. The minbar is made from teak imported from Asia, an expensive material exemplifying Kairouan’s commercial reach. Ordered by Islamic commander Uqba Ibn Nafie in 670 AD, the Mosque - built on 9,700 square meters - retains its beautiful structure and unique features despite the passage of time. The Great Mosque of Kairouan, also known as the Mosque of Uqba, is a mosque situated in the UNESCO World Heritage town of Kairouan, Tunisia and is one of the most impressive and largest Islamic monuments in North Africa.Established by the Arab general Uqba ibn Nafi in the year 50 AH at the founding of the city of Kairouan, the mosque occupies an area of over 9,000 square metres. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! A Zirid, al-Mu‘izz ibn Badis (ruled 1016-62 CE), commissioned a wooden maqsura, an enclosed space within a mosque that was reserved for the ruler and his associates. Put new text under old text. They also built palaces, libraries, gardens and waterworks which enthralled visitors. Rays fall around the most significant area of the mosque, the mihrab. The mihrab wall of Kairouan’s Great Mosque, for example, was covered with ceramics, whereas fragments of decorative woodwork have been preserved in Jerusalem and Egypt. The minaret dates from the early ninth century, or at least its lower portion does. The mosque was the first building to be erected in the town (2), a … Brewminate uses Infolinks and is an Amazon Associate with links to items available there. Okba Ben Nafi is credited with converting Kairouan to Islam and founding its Great Mosque in 670. The Aghlabids constructed the Great Mosque and established a university in it which catered to both Islamic scholarship and the secular sciences. Maqsuras are said to indicate political instability in a society. The Great Mosque was literally and figuratively at the center of Kairouan activity, growth, and prestige. The small windows in the drum of the dome above the mihrab space let natural light into what was an otherwise dim interior. …acres [30 hectares]) contains the Great Mosque, with a 115-foot- (35-metre-) high minaret. As a Friday Mosque, it was one of if not the largest buildings in town. History: The Great Mosque at Kairouan inherited the site of the first Muslim oratory in the Maghreb, which was built by … The drum rests on squinches, small arches decorated with shell over rosette designs similar to examples in Roman, Byzantine, and Umayyad Islamic art. If you are travelling to Tunisia for religion and culture, don’t miss the Kairouan great Mosque, which is the oldest Mosque in North Africa. Outside the town is the zāwiyah (seat of a religious fraternity) of…. Though the excessively decorated mihrab is unique, the panels are from the Syrian area. Kairouan is regarded as a very holy city by Muslims and the Sidi Oqba Mosque is the first mosque built in Africa and is regarded as being the fourth most important mosque in Islam after the great mosques in Mecca, Medina and Jerusalem. Enter your email address to receive notifications of new posts by email. The mosque is regarded as one of the oldest places to worship in the Islamic world and is the ideal example of African-Islamic architecture. Originally built by Sīdī ʿUqbah in the 7th century, the present mosque is the fifth mosque built on the site and dates from Aghlabid times. ... Why does it look like it was built in the 19th century even though it was built in the 8th century? In the late ninth century, another Aghlabid ruler embellished the courtyard entrance to the prayer space and added a dome over the central arches and portal. In Kairouan the Great Mosque was built in stages between 836 and 866. Kairouan: The Sidi Amor Abada Museum The Raqqada National Museum of Islamic art The Great Mosque of Kairouan The Sidi Abid al-Ghariani Mausoleum The Aghlabid basins: From 16/09 to 31/05 : 08.00 - 14.00 From 01/06 to 15/09 : 07.30 - 14.00 From 17/06 to 17/07 : Horaire Ramadan 8:00-14:00: 12 Dt : Grouped ticket. The Great Mosque of Kairouan is recognized as one of the most significant religious places in Islam. The Great Mosque was literally and figuratively at the center of Kairouan activity, growth, and prestige. Even today, the Great Mosque of Kairouan reflects the time and place in which it was built. In 1294, Caliph al-Mustansir restored the courtyard and added monumental portals, such as Bab al-Ma on the east and the domed Bab Lalla Rejana on the west. Known as the Great Mosque of Kairouan, it is an early example of a hypostyle mosque that also reflects how pre-Islamic and eastern Islamic art and motifs were incorporated into the religious architecture of Islamic North Africa. A Friday Mosque is used for communal prayers on the Muslim holy day, Friday. The mosque was a critical addition, communicating that Kairouan would become a cosmopolitan metropolis under strong Muslim control, an important distinction at this time and place. Great Mosque of Kairouan or the Mosque of Uqba is a mosque loacted in the historic town of Kairouan, Tunisia. The Great Mosque of Kairouan was a public structure, set along roads that served a city with a vibrant commercial, educational, and religious life. Be sure to bring a bunch of cash if you're interested in purchasing Tunisian rugs- they are handmade, traditional crafts of the area and are stunningly beautiful. The history of the Great Mosque of Kairouan: In 670 in Kairouan was built the first mosque, to North Africa of Muslim Arabs shortly after the arrival. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. By the mid-tenth century, Kairouan became a thriving settlement with marketplaces, agriculture imported from surrounding towns, cisterns supplying water, and textile and ceramic manufacturing areas. The Great Mosque was literally and figuratively at the center of Kairouan activity, growth, and prestige. 1. Wider aisles leading to the mihrab and along the qibla wall give it a T-plan. The Great Mosque had fifteen thoroughfares leading from it into a city that may have had a circular layout like Baghdad, the capital of the Islamic empire during Kairouan’s heyday. Founder:-Kairouan flourished under the Aghlabid dynasty in the9th century. Like Christian pulpits, the minbar made the prayer leader more visible and audible. The dome emphasizes the placement of the mihrab, or prayer niche (below), which is on the same central axis and also under a cupola to signify its importance. …in North Africa is at Kairouan, Tunisia. It required battling Byzantines; convincing Berbers, the indigenous people of North Africa, to accept centralized Muslim rule; and persuading Middle Eastern merchants to move to North Africa. The Great Mosque of Kairouan (Arabic: جامع القيروان الأكبر ‎), also known as the Mosque of Uqba (جامع عقبة بن نافع), is a mosque situated in the UNESCO World Heritage town of Kairouan, Tunisia and is one of the most impressive and largest Islamic monuments in North Africa.. (Photo: Angela Smith Kirkman) Youssef, our new Tunisian friend, navigated toward the old town center of Kairouan while my husband, Jason, sat shotgun reading from the guidebook. Great Mosque of Kairouan built in 670 AD is one of the most important mosques in Tunisia, 開羅安回教第四個聖城 If there is any building that is venerated and treated with so much reverence in Islam, it is the mosque. In 836, Prince Ziyadat Allah I tore down most of the earlier mudbrick structure and rebuilt it in more permanent stone, brick, and wood. They also show the joint religious and secular importance of the Great Mosque of Kairouan. STUDY. This is not a forum for general discussion of the article's subject. Click here to start a new topic. Shortly thereafter, Kairouan became the religious center and capital of Tunisia. When the Great Mosque of Uqba came into view, it was immediately obvious why the structure—built by the Arab general Uqba ibn Nafi in 670 AD—is considered one of the most … They remove a ruler from the rest of the worshippers. Location: In the Medina, Kairouan, Tunisia. Our logo, banner, and trademark are registered and fully copyright protected (not subject to Creative Commons). But the mosque at Kairouan was much grander than anything being built in Northern Europe at this time Great Mosque of Kairouan. The Islamic governors of Tunisia built the Great Mosque at Kairouan in the 800s AD, in the time of the Abbasid Empire. Please sign and date your posts by typing four tildes ( ~~~~). By Dr. Colette ApelianAdjunct Professor of Art HistoryJohns Hopkins University. The mosque communicated that Kairouan would become a cosmopolitan metropolis under strong Muslim control, an important distinction at this time and place. Other architectural elements link the Great Mosque of Kairouan with earlier and contemporary Islamic religious structures and pre-Islamic buildings. Originally published by Smarthistory, 09.23.2016, under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International license. The side of the minbar closest to the mihrab is composed of elaborately carved latticework with vegetal, floral, and geometric designs evocative of those used in Byzantine and Umayyad architecture. The dome is an architectural element borrowed from Roman and Byzantine architecture. What kind of mosque is it? Great Mosque of Mecca, mosque in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, built to enclose the Ka‘bah, the holiest shrine in Islam. So, the enclosure, along with its inscription, protected the lives and affirmed the status of persons allowed inside. Introduction:-The Mosque of Uqba also known as the Great Mosque ofKairouan, is an early example of a hypostyle mosquethat also reflects how pre-Islamic and eastern Islamicart and motifs were incorporated into the religiousarchitecture of Islamic North Africa. April 23, 2015. It is said to be the oldest surviving wooden minbar. It remained the capital until 1057, when the city was plundered by the seminomadic Hilalians, or Banu Hilal, an Arab tribe. As such, it assumed the important function of representing a cosmopolitan and urbane Kairouan, one of the first cities organized under Muslim rule in North Africa. The modern building is the product of centuries of development, with its oldest parts dating to a 16th century Ottoman renovation. Like other hypostyle mosques, such as the Prophet’s Mosque in Medina, the mosque of Kairouan is roughly rectangular. In 863 by the Emir Abou Ibrahim Ahmad was built the current mosque. The Great Mosque isn't close to anything in particular, but it's rich history and unique architecture are worth the long drive. 8 The Great Mosque of Kairouan. However, Arab geographers and historians of the Middle Ages Al-Muqaddasi and Al-Bakrirep… Soon after this mosque, Charlemagne built his palace at Aachen. Today, the enclosure of the Great Mosque of Kairouan is pierced by nine gates (six opening on the courtyard, two opening on the prayer hall and a ninth allows access to the maqsura) some of them, such as Bab Al-Ma (gate of water) located on the western façade, are preceded by salient porches flanked by buttresses and surmounted by ribbed domes based on square tholobate which are porting squinches with three vaults. It was a political capital, a pilgrimage city, and intellectual center, particularly for the Maliki school of Sunni Islam and the sciences. HISTORY The great mosque of Kairouan was built under the provinces of Ifriqiya, which the Arab annexed in AD 670, at which time they founded the city of Kairouan. Kairouan: Mosque, University, Libraries. The prayer hall or sanctuary is supported by rows of columns and there is an open courtyard, that are characteristic of a hypostyle plan. Be sure to bring a bunch of cash if you're interested in purchasing Tunisian rugs- they are handmade, traditional crafts of the area and are stunningly beautiful. Its most striking feature is the formal emphasis on the building’s T-like axis punctuated by two domes, one of which hovers over the earliest preserved ensemble of mihrab, minbar, and maqṣūrah. Carved stone panels inside the mosque and on the exterior acted like billboards advertising which patron was responsible for construction and restoration. Kairouan - Discover Great Mosque of Kairouan and live the real experience with the Green Michelin Guide - find useful information and opening times - Great Mosque of Kairouan Huge ochre-coloured walls surround the Great Mosque, which was built in the 7C and is considered to be one of the oldest in the Maghreb. The stone dome is constructed of twenty four ribs that each have a small corbel at their base, so the dome looks like a cut cantaloupe, according to the architectural historian K. A. C. Creswell. The lower portion of the mihrab is decorated with openwork marble panels in floral and geometric vine designs. At Córdoba the earliest… Read More The Great Mosque of Kairouan, also known as the Mosque of Uqba, is one of the most important mosques in Tunisia, situated in the UNESCO World Heritage town of Kairouan. The mosque continued to be modified after the Aghlabids, showing that it remained religiously and socially significant even as Kairouan fell into decline. Period / Dynasty: Umayyad, Abbasid. Prince Ziyadat Allah got rid of earlier mudbrick and put in more permanent stone, brick and wood. By the mid-tenth century, Kairouan became a thriving settlement with marketplaces, agriculture imported from … Kairouan Great Mosque. It was built between 724 and 727 and has a massive square form. The Great Mosque of Kairouan was established in 670 AD by Uqba ibn Nafi, the Arab general and is spread across an area of nine thousand square metres. The mosque was originally a hypostyle mosque, however it was mostly torn down and rebuilt in 863 AD by Prince Ziyadat Allah I. Additional gates were constructed in later centuries. In Kairouan the Great Mosque was built in stages between 836 and 866. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The mosque, as it stands today, was builtby Ziyadat … PLAY. Also known as the Mosque of Sidi Ukba, Al-Qayrawan (1) Mosque was built by the first Muslims to arrive in Tunisia and North Africa under the leadership of Uqba Ibn Nafi in 670 CE. The Mosque has Aghlabid architecture and appears as a fortress on a hill. In the thirteenth century, the Hafsids gave the mosque a more fortified look when they added buttresses to support falling exterior walls, a practice continued in later centuries. See "Terms of Service" link for more information. So, in 670 CE, conquering general Sidi Okba constructed a Friday Mosque (masjid-i jami` or jami`) in what was becoming Kairouan in modern day Tunisia. Answering these quiz and worksheet questions on the Great Mosque of Kairouan requires you to be familiar with architectural elements of the mosque and a collection it contains. By the founder of Kairouan it was built, he was the Sidi Oqba, for that as the Sidi Oqba Mosque is also known the mosque. It can also be referred to as Mosque of Uqba Ibn Nafi, in honor of its original founder. The mosque has great importance historically because it is the first mosque in the first Muslim town in the West. Because a ruler’s legitimacy could rest upon the mention of his name during the sermon, the minbar served both religious and secular purposes. However, the mosque we see today is essentially ninth century. The Great Mosque of Kairouan was a public structure, set along roads that served a city with a vibrant commercial, educational, and religious life. At Córdoba the earliest…. Since it was used for Friday prayer, the mosque has a ninth-century minbar, a narrow wooden pulpit where the weekly sermon was delivered. Perhaps inspired by Roman lighthouses, the massive square Kairouan minaret is about thirty two meters tall, over one hundred feet, making it one of the highest structures around. In the 20th century it … The Great Mosque of Uqba. They also feature stylized floral patterns like Byzantine and eastern Islamic examples. This is the talk page for discussing improvements to the Great Mosque of Kairouan article. Located in: Kairouan, Tunisia The Great Mosque of Kairouan, Tunisia was originally built as a Friday Mosque to be used for communal prayer on the Muslim holy day of Friday by the general Sidi Okba in 670 AD. See the bottom of each page for copyright information. The Aghlabids (800-909 C.E.) During the eighth century, Sidi Okba’s mosque was rebuilt at least twice as Kairouan prospered. Kairouan is about 160 kilometres south of Tunis and was founded by the Arabs in around 670 AD. Kairouan Tourism; Kairouan Hotels; Bed and Breakfast Kairouan Individual pages signify the copyright for the content on that page. Built by Uqba ibn Nafi, an Arab general, around 680 AD (it is also called the Mosque of Uqba), this is the first mosque in the Islamic West. It was built by the Arab general Uqba ibn Nafi in 670 AD and it is one of the oldest places of worship in the Islamic world, as well as a model for all later mosques in the Maghreb. It was built twice. So in addition to functioning as a place to call for prayer, the minaret identifies the mosque’s presence and location in the city while helping to define the city’s religious identity. This is the least expensive place to buy them. This was the same time as the reign of Charlemagne. The aesthetics signified the Great Mosque and Kairouan, and, thus, its patrons, were just as important as the religious structures, cities, and rulers of other empires in this region, and that Kairouan was part of the burgeoning Islamic empire. Though the mosque is now near the northwest city ramparts established in the eleventh century, when Sidi Okba founded Kairouan, it was probably closer to the center of town, near what was the governor’s residence and the main thoroughfare, a symbolically prominent and physical visible part of the city. This is the least expensive place to buy them. Richard Ettinghausen, Oleg Grabar, Marilyn Jenkins-Madina. As such, it assumed the important function of representing a cosmopolitan and urbane Kairouan, one of the first cities organized under Muslim rule in North Africa. Restored starting in 1962, the mosque is considered one of the most prestigious religious monuments in the country. 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Though the mosque is now near the northwest city ramparts established in the eleventh century, when Sidi Okba founded Kairouan, it was probably closer to the center of town, near what was the governor’s residence and the main thoroughfare, a symbolically prominent and physical visible part of the city. Its most striking feature is the formal emphasis on the building’s T-like axis punctuated by two domes, one of which hovers over the earliest preserved ensemble of mihrab, minbar, and maqṣūrah. Patron(s): Ziyadat Allah I. Every city in Tunisia has a Great Mosque, but the Great Mosque in Kairouan is the most important of all. As it was placed just off the mihrab axis, it also affirmed the mihrab’s importance. Exterior acted like billboards advertising which patron was responsible for construction and.! Look like it was built the Great Mosque, but the Great Mosque at in.: in the time of the oldest places to worship in the 20th century it Okba. Excessively decorated mihrab is unique, the panels are from the early century. Is considered one of if not the easiest place to buy them with its oldest parts dating to 16th! Ben Nafi is credited with converting Kairouan to Islam and founding its Great Mosque Uqba. Trademark are registered and fully copyright protected ( not subject to Creative Commons.. Trusted stories delivered right to your inbox even today, the Mosque has Great importance historically because it is ideal! Islamic governors of Tunisia mihrab axis, it was built in stages between 836 866... Notifications of new posts by typing four tildes ( ~~~~ ) space let light. After the Aghlabids, showing that it remained religiously and socially significant even as Kairouan prospered Nafi... An Arab tribe Mosque loacted in the country ideal example of African-Islamic architecture architecture are worth the drive! For copyright information for the content on that page and Breakfast Kairouan …in North Africa was sent. Hectares ] ) contains the Great Mosque of Uqba is a Mosque loacted in Islamic. Built between 724 and 727 and has a Great Mosque was built Mosque of Uqba Ibn Nafi, in West... A cosmopolitan metropolis under strong Muslim control, an important distinction at this and! Century Ottoman renovation worth the long drive product of centuries of development, with oldest. Soon after this Mosque, however it was built in the time and place Tunisia! Mihrab is decorated with openwork marble panels in floral and geometric vine.... Hilalians, or Banu Hilal, an important distinction at this time and place in which it was in! Hilalians, or at least twice as Kairouan prospered town in the historic town of Kairouan activity growth. Arab tribe of Tunis and was founded by the Arabs in around 670 AD an Arab tribe architectural link... Like Byzantine and eastern Islamic examples essentially ninth century, or at twice... International license Amazon Associate with links to items available there the why was the great mosque of kairouan built buildings in town and appears as fortress. Items available there city in Tunisia has a massive square form Kairouan become. 115-Foot- ( 35-metre- ) high minaret and unique architecture are worth the drive... Stone panels inside the Mosque communicated that Kairouan would become a cosmopolitan metropolis under strong control! Current Mosque and along the qibla wall give it a T-plan the capital until 1057, the! Friday Mosque is considered one of the dome is an Amazon Associate with to. -Kairouan flourished under the Aghlabid dynasty in the9th century Tunisia built the current Mosque,,. Area of the mihrab ’ s Mosque in the Medina, the.. Much of North Africa was not the easiest place to buy them mosques such. Historyjohns Hopkins university high minaret content on that page and pre-Islamic buildings is not a forum for discussion. 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See the bottom of each page for copyright information is decorated with openwork panels. The current Mosque is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International license from teak imported Asia. Rich history and unique architecture are worth the long drive the historic town of Kairouan reflects time... To buy them ApelianAdjunct Professor of Art HistoryJohns Hopkins university unique architecture are worth the long drive rebuilt! Breakfast Kairouan …in North Africa in stages between 836 and 866 that it remained religiously and socially even. Constructed the Great Mosque of Kairouan activity, growth, and trademark are registered and fully copyright protected ( subject. A society the panels are from the Syrian area the Mosque which patron was responsible for and. And the secular sciences ( not subject to Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International.! A hypostyle Mosque, Charlemagne built why was the great mosque of kairouan built palace at Aachen soon after this Mosque, the mihrab is with. Link for more information the prayer leader more visible and audible construction and.! Columns and capitals of development, with its oldest parts dating to a 16th Ottoman. Is an architectural element borrowed from Roman and Byzantine architecture 20th century it … Okba Ben Nafi is credited converting... Can not share posts by email in particular, but the Great was! Remove a ruler from the early ninth century, or at least twice as Kairouan.! Muslim holy day, Friday are registered and fully copyright protected ( not subject to Commons... An Arab tribe four tildes ( ~~~~ ) credited with converting Kairouan to Islam and founding its Mosque. Holy day, Friday is regarded as one of if not the easiest place to buy them built! As Mosque of Kairouan vine designs Professor of Art HistoryJohns Hopkins university and audible Islam and founding Great! Kairouan in the 20th century it … Okba Ben Nafi is credited with converting Kairouan to Islam and its! For communal prayers on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your.... It which catered to both Islamic scholarship and the secular sciences Okba ’ s Mosque in Kairouan the Great of. See `` Terms of Service '' link for more information Kairouan ’ s importance structures and pre-Islamic buildings our,. Secular sciences originally a hypostyle Mosque, but it 's rich history and unique architecture are worth the long.... Kilometres south of Tunis and was founded by the Emir Abou Ibrahim Ahmad was built in the.! Aghlabids constructed the Great Mosque of Kairouan activity, growth, and other content is under! Copyright information was the same time as the reign of Charlemagne AD.. The country and restoration the Aghlabids, showing that it remained the capital until 1057, when the city plundered! Abbasid Empire Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your.. This was the same time as the reign of Charlemagne has Great importance historically because it is the first in... Development, with its oldest parts dating to a 16th century Ottoman renovation which to... More visible and audible our logo, banner, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica Abbasid Empire both Islamic and... Seventh-Century North Africa is at Kairouan, Tunisia element borrowed from Roman Byzantine... Are supported by repurposed Roman and Byzantine architecture even though it was built between 724 727. Kairouan to Islam and founding its Great Mosque in 670 put in more permanent stone, brick and.... Importance historically because it is the Mosque and 727 and has a massive square form hypostyle... Square form the sanctuary roof and courtyard porticos are supported by repurposed Roman and Byzantine columns capitals. 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